Some basic definition
China dish refers to any ceramic dish – porcelain, bone china, earthenware or stoneware.
Most china is pretty robust, unless very thinly potted, such as bone china or porcelain, and pretty durable. It should withstand hot temperatures, for example hot water, so china plates can be washed by hand or in a dishwasher.
All gilding on china is applied over the glaze. This means it is exposed to rubbing and will weather eventually. The pace of wear to the gold parts on china depends on the type of the gilding. Burnished gold is the best and the most durable of gilding methods. But the tiny sand particles in the water in a dishwasher will scratch the gilding eventually.
China decorated over the glaze, for example with colourful painted enamel flowers, is better washed by hand. The enamel is unprotected by the glaze.